Hartsell Pool Renovations
817-485-7525
Hartsell Pool Renovations
817-485-7525
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SWIMMING POOL CARE MADE EASY

Take   care   of   your   pool   and   it   will   provide   you   with   enjoyable swimming    year    after    year.    If    you    follow    the    basics    of    proper chemical    treatment    and    filtration,pool    care    will    be    simple    and easy to follow. This    section    will    guide    you    through    the    steps    you    should    take from   pool   start-up,to   in-season   care,   to   winter   protection.   It   even covers   important   tips   on   safetyaround   your   pool   and   contains   a handy trouble-shooting guide. SIZING YOUR POOL You   must   know   the   amount   of   water   that   your   pool   holds   in order   to   know   how   much   chemical   to   use.   Here   is   a   simple   chart   to   figure   out   your   pool   volume. All measurements should be taken in feet. ROUND: Diameter  x   Diameter  x  Average Depth x 5.9 = Gallons RECTANGLE: Length  x   Width  x   Average Depth x 7.5 = Gallons OVAL: Long Dia.  x  Short Dia.  x  Average Depth  x  5.9 Gallons For all other pools ask your builder, retailer, or serviceman for help. FILTER SYSTEMS There   are   three   basic   filter   types:   diatomaceous   earth   (DE),   sand,   and   cartridge.   Even   though each   pool   may   have   its   own   unique   plumbing   design,   all   filter   systems   will   perform   the   same   job. Pool   water   is   drawn   through   a   skimmer   or   a   drain   and   pumped   through   a   filter   which   removes dirt,   algae   and   visible   contaminants   that   enter   the   pool.   You   must   operate   the   filter   system   at least   eight   hours   per   day   in   order   to   remove   wastes   effectively.   Remember,   by   filtering   properly you   will   help   avoid   contaminant   build-up   and   save   on   chemical   costs!   You   can   protect   your   filter system   by   adding   the   correct   amount   of   sand   or   DE   and   cleaning   your   filter   regularly   with   a FILTER   CLEANER   to   remove   oils   and   other   organics   like   lint   or   hair   that   may   lodge   in   your   filter. Occasionally   you   may   need   to   apply   a   CLARIFIER   to   help   your   filter   trap   minute   particles   that may be passing through the system. WATER BALANCE Your   pool   is   designed   to   hold   the   same   water   for   many   years.   You   filter   it   and   chemically treat   it   over   and   over   again.   During   this   period   of   time   the   water   can   drift   out   of   balance   and cause   corrosion,   scaling   or   even   stains   to   appear.   You   can   easily   prevent   these   problems   by paying   attention   to   the   basics   of   water   balance.   A   good   quality   test   kit   will   measure   the   key components   of   water   balance--pH,   Total   Alkalinity,   and   Acid   or   Alkali   Demand.   Use   your   kit   often until   you   become   familiar   with   your   pool   and   supplement   your   tests   by   having   your   professional pool   dealer   perform   detailed   tests   on   occasion   to   verify   your   readings   and   spot   trends   that   could lead to potential problems. pH Measures   the   acidity   or   alkalinity   of   pool   water   on   a   scale   of   "0-   14".   Extreme   acid   is   "0"   and extreme   alkali   is   "14".   The   proper   pH   range   is   7.2-7.8.   pH   readings   greater   than   7.8   will   lead   to cloudy   water   and   scaling   on   all   pool   surfaces,   inefficient   sanitizing,   and   swimmer   discomfort.   pH readings   less   than   7.2   will   lead   to   corrosion   of   metal   parts   such   as   heaters   and   ladders,   wrinkled vinyl   liners,   etched   plaster,   and   swimmer   discomfort.   You   can   easily   maintain   proper   pH   by   using pH DECREASER or pH INCREASER when needed according to label directions. TOTAL ALKALINITY Measures   the   level   of   certain   minerals   that   help   control   the   pH   of   your   pool   water.   The proper   range   of   Total   Alkalinity   is   between   80-150   ppm   (parts   per   million).   Low   Total   Alkalinity allows   the   pH   to   fluctuate   or   "bounce"   in   either   direction   and   can   make   it   difficult   for   you   to keep   the   pH   stable.   For   that   reason   another   name   for   Total   Alkalinity   is   "pH   Stabilizer".   Raise Total   Alkalinity   by   using   TOTAL   ALKALINITY   "INCREASER"   according   to   label   directions.   High   Total Alkalinity   locks   in   the   pH,   but   usually   at   pH   levels   above   7.8.   This   condition   needs   to   be   corrected with    pH    DECREASER    or    muriatic    acid.    Vinyl,    painted    and    fiberglass    pools    usually    require somewhat    higher    Total    Alkalinity    levels    than    plaster    pools    and    you    should    consult    your professional pool store or serviceman for more details. HARDNESS Measures   the   level   of   calcium   and   magnesium   minerals   present   in   your   pool   water.   These minerals   exist   naturally   in   all   water   but   the   levels   vary   greatly   from   one   part   of   the   country   to another.    "Soft    water"    typically    contains    50    ppm    Hardness    or    less    while    "hard    water"    may contain   300   ppm   Hardness   or   more.   The   proper   range   for   plaster   pools   is   175-300   ppm   Hardness and   for   vinyl,   painted   or   fiberglass   pools   the   proper   range   is   125-250   ppm   Hardness.   Pool   water low   in   Hardness   causes   etching   of   plaster   and   corrosion   of   pool   surfaces.   Raise   Hardness   by adding   CALCIUM   HARDNESS   INCREASER   according   to   label   directions.   Pool   water   high   in   Hardness causes    cloudiness    and    scaling    to    occur.    Control    these    symptoms    by    using    SCALE    OR    STAIN REMOVER   according   to   label   directions   or   drain   a   portion   of   the   water   and   refill   with   water   low   in Hardness to dilute the mineral level. MINERAL CONTROL Is   an   important   concern   for   pool   owners   who   use   well   water   or   for   pools   that   contain   copper plumbing   such   as   heaters.   Both   conditions   can   yield   trace   levels   iron,   copper   or   even   manganese that   can   cause   water   discoloration   and   staining.   Such   discoloration   can   appear   green,   blue, brown   or   even   black   in   color.   This   is   caused   by   the   reaction   between   your   sanitizer   and   the particular   trace   minerals   in   your   pool   water.   You   can   prevent   the   problem   by   having   your   pool water   professionally   tested   for   these   minerals   when   your   pool   is   being   filled   or   at   any   time during   the   season.   If   staining   minerals   are   present   apply   SCALE   OR   STAIN   REMOVER   as   soon   as possible   according   to   label   directions.   Re-apply   the   treatment   if   necessary   and   consult   with   your professional pool dealer or serviceman for more information. STABILIZER Refers   to   "chlorine   stabilizer",   the   final   part   of   pool   water   balance.   This   is   a   chemical   that prevents   the   ultra-violet   rays   (UV)   of   sunlight   from   prematurely   breaking   down   your   sanitizer level    so    that    it    can    do    it's    job    sanitizing    the    pool    water.    CHLORINE    STABILIZER    will    reduce sanitizer   consumption   by   up   to   50%   and   need   only   be   added   once   for   the   entire   life   of   the   pool water.   Apply   CHLORINE   STABILIZER   according   to   label   directions   and   do   not   backwash   for   at   least 24 hours. SANITIZERS Now   that   your   pool   water   is   balanced   and   stabilized,   iris   time   to   sanitize   it   with   chlorine. There   are   many   types   of   chlorine   and   your   professional   pool   dealer   or   serviceman   will   explain them    all    to    you.    The    most    economical    and    convenient    choice    is    STABILIZED    CHLORINATING TABLETS   or   STICKS.   This   type   of   chlorine   is   applied   weekly   and   is   not   affected   by   sunlight   like   HTH or   liquid   bleach.   You   can   dispense   TABLETS   or   STICKS   by   placing   them   in   a   chlorinator,   a   floating feeder,   or   a   skimmer   basket.   Again,   your   dealer   or   serviceman   will   guide   you   to   the   approach that   is   best   for   your   pool.   The   EPA   (Environmental   Protection   Agency)   has   determined   that   you must    maintain    a    level    of    1.0-1.5    ppm    of    available    chlorine    at    all    times    to    continuously    kill bacteria,   algae   and   other   micro-organisms   that   try   to   inhabit   your   pool.   By   using   slow   dissolving TABLETS   or   STICKS   you   will   be   able   to   give   your   pool   24   hour   protection.   During   pool   start-up   you may    need    extra    doses    of    chlorine    in    order    to    satisfy    the    initial    demand    of    the    water.    This demand   could   include   contaminants   such   as   organics   and   debris   that   built   up   before   you   started using   chlorine.   Use   your   test   kit   often   to   check   your   chlorine   level   and   adjust   your   chlorinator   or floater   as   needed   to   increase   or   decrease   the   flow.      A   few   important   factors   affect   the   amount   of TABLETS   or   STICKS   that   you   will   consume.   They   are:   Temperature,   Bathing   Load,   Rainfall   and   pH. The   warmer   the   pool   water,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   In   fact,   pool   water   at   80ø- 85øF   will   require   twice   the   chlorine   of   pool   water   at   60-65øF!   The   greater   the   bathing   load,   the greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   Heavily   used   pools   increase   the   load   of   contaminants   such as   perspiration,   mucous   and   tanning   lotions,   all   of   which   consumes   chlorine.   The   greater   the rainfall,   the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   Rain   washes   airborne   contaminants   such   as pollen   and   algae   spores   into   the   pool   and   tends   to   lower   the   pH   of   the   water   by   contributing "acid   rain",   a   chemical   reaction   between   rain   and   air   pollution.   Finally,   low   pH   causes   chlorine   to be   "overactive"   and   dissipate   too   quickly.   Proper   control   of   Total   Alkalinity   will   prevent   low   pH and   save   on   chemical   costs.      If   you   prefer   to   sanitize   your   pool   water   by   hand,   STABILIZED CHLORINATING    GRANULES    is    the    proper    choice.    These    granules    are    rapidly    and    completely soluble   in   all   water   temperatures   and   provide   the   same   24   hour   protection   that   you   get   from TABLETS or STICKS. SHOCK TREATMENTS Various     contaminants     such     as     swimmer     waste,     lotions     and     oils     can     resist     normal chlorination   and   start   to   build   up   in   the   pool   water.   This   build   up   usually   occurs   during   hot weather   and   periods   of   heavy   bathing   when   your   filter   is   already   working   overtime.   A   weekly SHOCK    treatment,    when    applied    according    to    label    directions,    will    oxidize    or    burn-up    these contaminants.   A   SHOCK   quickly   raises   the   chlorine   level   to   overcome   the   contaminants   for   a period   of   12-24   hours.   It   is   best   to   apply   SHOCK   in   early   evening   so   that   it   can   work   overnight   and be   burned   down   to   normal   levels   the   next   day.   Be   sure   to   continue   to   run   your   filter   during   this period of time. ALGAECIDES Algaecides   are   excellent   treatments   to   prevent   or   kill   algae   growth   when   used   with   chlorine. As   a   preventative,   algaecides   act   as   an   insurance   policy   in   your   pool,   killing   algae   spores   as   they enter   the   water.   Algae   spores   are   constantly   entering   your   pool   from   rain,   wind   and   dust   storms and   they   multiply   rapidly   in   sunlight   and   warm   water.   Routine   chlorination   cannot,   at   times, cope   with   the   rapid   growth   of   an   algae   "bloom",   the   visible   outburst   of   algae.   These   algae   can appear   green,   brown,   black,   mustard   or   even   pink   in   color.   By   the   time   algae   has   bloomed   there are   millions   of   algae   cells   in   every   gallon   of   water!   Your   professional   pool   dealer   or   serviceman has   a   variety   of   algaecides   for   all   kinds   of   algae   and   will   recommend   the   best   choice   for   either prevention or killing needs PRODUCT LIST STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (3" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 7 oz. wrapped tablets, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (1" Size) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 1/2 oz. tablets, For use in Floaters or chlorinators. STABILIZED CHLORINATING STICKS (2" Diameter) * Slow dissolving, 89% available chlorine, 8 oz. sticks, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 62% available chlorine granules, 100% soluble, For hand feeding. BROMINATING TABLETS (1" Size) . Slow dissolving, 61% available bromine, alternative to chlorine, For use in brominators. UNSTABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, contains calcium, For hand Feeding. STABILIZER * Slow dissolving, 100% active granules, to prevent sunlight From lowering available chlorine in pool water. pH INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise pH. pH DECREASER . Fast dissolving, 95% active, to lower pH TOTAL ALKALINITY INCREASER . Fast dissolving, 100% active Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, to raise and stabilize pH. CALCIUM HARDNESS INCREASER * Fast dissolving, 100% active, to raise and balance calcium level. SHOCK TREATMENT . Fast dissolving, 65% available chlorine granules, to oxidize contaminants that build up during year. ALGAECIDES . A variety of maximum strength algaecides, to prevent and kill a broad range oF algae. Check with your dealer or serviceman for details. SPECIALTY CHEMICALS . A variety oF specialties For clarifying, stain and scale control, filter or surface cleaning. Check with your dealer or serviceman For details. TROUBLESHOOTING Sometimes   even   the   most   experienced   pool   managers   run   into   problems   that   require   special treatments. Here are a number of the most common problems and recommended actions. CLOUDY WATER Make   sure   the   filter   is   operating   properly   and   the   correct   amount   of   filter   media   has   been used.   Adjust   the   pH,   if   necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   and   SHOCK   treat   the   water.   If   the   condition   does   not improve   try   adding   a   CLARIFIER   or   filter   aid.   Continue   filtering   and   maintain   the   required   level   of chlorine.   If   your   pool   water   is   "old"   and   has   a   high   level   of   dissolved   solids   (calcium,   stabilizer, chlorides   and   other   salts)   you   may   need   to   drain   a   portion   of   the   water   and   refill   with   fresh water. Your dealer or serviceman can test this for you and advise the correct action. ALGAE There   are   many   types   of   algae   that   can   infect   pool   water.   The   most   common   types,   floating or   clinging   green   algae,   respond   quickly   to   a   SHOCK   treatment   and   dose   of   maximum   strength ALGAECIDE.   Be   sure   to   adjust   the   pH,   if   necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   before   shocking   and   brush   all   pool surfaces   to   expose   algae   hiding   in   cracks   or   wrinkles.   Apply   the   algaecide   the   next   day.   Pink algae   and   mustard   algae   require   extra   care   because   they   both   tend   to   re-infect   pool   water   very easily.   Treat   pink   algae   in   the   same   manner   as   already   outlined   but,   in   addition,   sanitize   all   pool parts   that   come   in   contact   with   the   water,   such   as   the   vacuum   hose   and   head,   by   immersing them   in   the   pool   during   the   shock   treatment.   Treat   mustard   algae   with   a   special   algaecide designed   to   combat   this   strain.   Clinging   black   algae   that   tends   to   appear   as   dots   or   nodules   can be   treated   by   applying   a   slow   dissolving   granular   algaecide   directly   on   the   algae   and   by   brushing the   algae   vigorously   to   expose   it's   roots.   In   all   cases   apply   the   ALGAECIDE   directly   into   the   pool as close to the algae as possible. COLORED WATER Reddish   or   brownish   colored   water   is   usually   caused   by   oxidized   iron   or   manganese.   Treat the   pool   water   with   STAIN   &   SCALE   REMOVER   to   coat   the   minerals   and   prevent   the   oxidation process.    Greenish    or    bluish    colored    water    is    usually    caused    by    oxidized    copper.    Treat    the condition   as   above   and   consult   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman   for   more   details.   Be   sure   not   to confuse   green,   slimy   water   that   indicates   an   algae   infection   with   the   greenish   cast   associated with copper. STAINS AND SCALE Stains   can   develop   when   colored   water   is   left   unattended   or   when   metals   such   as   coins   are accidentally    left    in    the    pool.    Scale    is    a    crusty    build    up    on    pool    floors    and    walls    caused    by excessive   calcium   levels   and   high   pH.   Usually   both   conditions   must   occur   for   scale   to   form.   Both stains   and   scale   can   be   controlled   by   lowering   the   pH,   if   necessary,   and   by   using   STAIN   AND SCALE REMOVER according to label directions. Severe   conditions,   especially   in   plastered   pools,   may   require   an   "acid   wash",   a   draining   and cleaning performed by your dealer or serviceman. CHLORINE: TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW Inability   to   hold   a   chlorine   reading   usually   indicates   lack   of   STABILIZER   in   the   water.   Have your   water   tested   for   STABILIZER   and   add   if   necessary.   Also   be   sure   to   check   your   floater   or chlorinator    to    insure    a    supply    of    chlorine.    Low    readings    could    signal    an    excessive    chlorine demand   that   is   not   being   met.   In   this   case,   a   SHOCK   treatment   would   be   appropriate.   Finally, your   testing   chemicals   (reagents)   may   be   old   and   need   to   be   replenished.   Check   with   your   dealer or   serviceman   for   accurate   water   testing.   A   high   chlorine   reading   that   won't   dissipate   gradually may   indicate   too   much   chlorine   is   being   added   to   the   water.   Check   your   floater   or   chlorinator and   make   the   necessary   adjustment.   On   occasion   chloramines   (chlorine   reacted   with   swimmer waste)    can    develop    and    cause    the    chlorine    reading    to    remain    high.    In    this    case,    a    SHOCK treatment corrects the condition by breaking up the chloramines. WINTER CARE If   you   live   in   a   climate   that   requires   winterization   of   your   pool   you   should   follow   these   simple steps. 1. Have your water tested professionally and add any necessary balancers at this time. 2. Vacuum the pool thoroughly and clean the filter. 3. If you have minerals, high calcium level, or a new plaster pool add STAIN AND SCALE CONTROL directly to the water. 4. While the pool is still circulating, SHOCK it according to label direction and be sure to distribute the SHOCK evenly. 5. Prevent winter algae growth by adding ALGAECIDE the followingday. 6. Lower the water level if desired, plug all lines and drain water from the equipment to prevent freeze damage. 7. Follow all equipment makers recommendations for winter care. 8. Add pool grade anti-freeze to the lines to prevent freezing. 9. Cover the pool with either a mesh or solid cover and fasten itsecurely. Consult with your dealer or serviceman for the cover that is best foryour pool and for more details about winter care. SAFETY TIPS Your pool will bring years of safe and enjoyable swimming if you follow these simple rules. 1. No running, pushing, or foolish play in or near the pool. 2. No diving in shallow or unmarked pools. 3. Children must be supervised at all times. 4. Safety fencing should be added (check local building codes). 5. Keep a first aid kit and manual, a life ring, and a pole on site at all times. Browser Fixed Safe handling of chemicals should also be the rule. 1. Chlorine products emit powerful chlorine gas and should never be opened indoors and when opened, avoid breathing fumes. 2. Label directions for use must be followed at all times. 3. Do not mix chemicals. A violent reaction can occur. 4. Never add water to chemicals. 5. Read all warning statements on product labels. 6. Do not take advise from others or experiment on your own. 7. Store all chemicals in a cool, dry place and keep sealed. 8. Most important of all, KEEP CHEMICALS AWAY FROM CHILDREN. ALGAECIDES: MANY CURES Algae   are   constantly   infecting   water   through   airborne   contact   which   is   accelerated   by   rain and   wind.   If   algae   spores   are      killed   off   as   they   enter   the   water   by   using   repeated   algaestatic   or maintenance doses of algaecides, the incidents of alga bloom   are   effectively   eliminated.   This   is   an   "insurance   policy"   approach   compared   to   the   cost   of treating alga bloom. If   algae   does   bloom   (become   visible),   then   the   best   approach   is   to   adjust   the   pH=   7.2-7.8, shock   treat   the   water   with   7-10   ppm      of   available   chlorine,   brush   all   surfaces   vigorously,   and follow with a killing dose ( 5x maintenance dose) of algaecide. Continue to filter and backwash, if necessary, during the entire episode. According   to   the   United   States   EPA   (Environmental   Protection   Agency)   all   approved   algaecides prevent   and   kill   most   strains   of   algae.   There   is   no   rule   or   clear-cut   order   to   determine   which algaecide to use, so choosing algaecides is similar to choosing   medicines.   Start   with   your   favored   choice   and   proceed   from   there.   If   algae   persists,   try another choice. Here are the algaecide choices and their characteristics: QUAT   TYPE   :   This   is   the   nickname   for   Quaternary   ammonium   chloride.   It   is   economical,   long- lasting,     non-staining     (non-metallic),     excellent     wetting     properties     (penetrates     microscopic cracks).   Will   foam   if   overdosed.   Best   used   for   floating   green,   clinging   green   and   pink   algae. POLYMER   TYPE      This   is   the   nickname   for   an   organic   polymer.   It   is   fairly   expensive,   very   long lasting,    non-staining,    and    non-foaming.    Manufacturer    data    suggests    it    is    more    stable    in    the presence of high chlorine than "quats." Best used for black (Dark green complex) and pink algae. COPPER   TYPE   This   is   a   chelated   (controlled)   copper   solution.   It   is   very   economical,   very   long lasting,   and   non   foaming.   Can   cause   blue   staining   or   "green"   hair.   Best   used   for   floating   green and   mustard   algae.   SILVER   TYPE   .   This   is   a   silver   colloid   (controlled)   solution.   It   is   very   expensive, short   lived   (curative   use   only),   and   non   foaming.   Can   cause   brown   staining   if   mis-handled.   Best used   for   black   and   mustard   algae.   All   other   approved   algaecides   are   dilutions   or   blends   of   these four types. ACID & BASE DEMAND CALCULATIONS Don't   overlook   the   importance   of   performing   Base   Demand   Tests   if   your   pH   is   6.8   or   lower and Acid Demand Tests if your pH is 8.2 or higher. Many   water   samples   are   being   reported   with   pH--   6.8   when,   in   fact,   the   true   pH   might   be   5.0- 6.5!   Taking   time   to   perform   the   Base   Demand   Test   will   take   the   guess   work   out   of   adjusting   the pH. Look at the difference: pH Reading     Amount of Product Needed to Attain pH=7.5 6.8         1.5 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons 6.5         4.5 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons 6.0        10-12 lbs. Sodium Carbonate per 10,000 gallons If   a   pool   owner   uses   1.5   lbs.   of   Sodium   Carbonate   when   5   or   10   lbs.   is   actually   required,   the pH reading will still appear as 6.8. Rule   of   thumb:   For   each   drop   of   Base   Demand,   use   one-third   (1/3)   lb.   of   Sodium   Carbonate   per 10,000 gallons. The   calculation   for   Acid   Demand   reveals   a   similar   pattern   with   an   extra   complication   related to    the    level    of    Total    Alkalinity.    This    is    especially    true    in    hard    water    areas    and    with    curing plastered pools. An extra amount of acid may be needed to lower the both Total Alkalinity and pH. pH Reading       Amount of Dry Acid Needed to Attain pH= 7.5 8.2           1.5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 8.5           4-5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 9.0        10-12 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons For   those   who   prefer   Muriatic   Acid,   the   conversion   factor   from   Dry   Acid   to   Muriatic   Acid (Hydrochloric Acid) is: 10 lbs. of Dry Acid -- One (1) Gallon of Muriatic Acid Because    of    the    connection    between    high    pH    and    high    Total    Alkalinity    the    following information   should   be   considered.   The      most   common   technique   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   is   to pour   Muriatic   Acid   in   a   series   of   "pockets"   in   the   deep   end   of   a   pool,   keeping   away   from   the   walls and   floor,   if   possible.   Use   of   Muriatic   Acid   seems   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   with   less   impact   on pH than use of Dry Acid. Rule of thumb: 1 Gallon of Muriatic Acid reduces 60 ppm of Total Alkalinity in 10,000 gallons. ALGAE: SOME STUBBORN FACTS Algae,   algae,   algae...   green,   black,   mustard,   and   pink.   Why   do   you   use   algaecides?   When   do you   dose?   Which   one?   How   much?   These   questions   are   asked   over   and   over   again.   It   seems   that everyone   has   their   own   opinions   about   algae   control   and   here   are   some   of   the   most   widely   held beliefs: Algaecides   are   not   necessary   because   chlorine   kills   all.   This   may   be   true   in   theory,   but   the chlorine   level   must   be   kept   high   at   all   times   (3   ppm   or   higher)   and   not   permitted   to   slip.   This   can be   expensive,   irritating   to   swimmers,   will   lead   to   bleached   swimwear   and   vinyl   liners,   and   is difficult   to   maintain.   Even   in   high   chlorine,   some   algae   "habitate"   or   become   accustomed   to   a steady   level.   In   tropical   areas,   for   example,   black   algae   sets   "roots"   and   seals   itself   with   a   tar- like   coating   that   is   unaffected   by   high   levels   of   chlorine.   Mustard   algae   is   another   algae   that seems to thrive in chlorinated water. Algaecides   are   killers   and   Algaestats   are   preventatives.   This   may   be   true   by   definition   but one   product   does   both   jobs.   The   EPA   does   not   recognize   the   difference   between   killing   visible algae     (Algaecide)     and     killing     invisible     algae     (Algaestat).     Invisible     algae     sounds     like     a contradiction   but,   in   fact,   thousands   of   algae   are   growing   before   they   become   visible   in   an   algae bloom. Algae   doesn't   grow   in   low   pH   water.   Not   true.   The   most   common   types   of   algae   such   as "planktonic   blue-greens"   prefer   pH=7.4-9.0.   but   many   types   live   in   pH--   5.0-7.0.   During   periods   of hot   weather   and   intense   sunlight,   photosynthesis   is   at   its   peak.   As   algae   grow,   carbon   dioxide (food   for   algae)   is   withdrawn   from   the   water   and   the   pH   drifts   upward.   It   is   most   common   to   see a green pool with a pH-- 8.0. Algae   doesn't   grow   in   cold   water.   Temperatures   have   to   drop   to   near   freezing   before   algae move   into   a   dormant   state.   Studies   in   the   Arctic   Circle   indicate   that   as   long   as   light   is   present algae will grow. Algae   can   be   filtered   out   of   water.   This   is   true   for   "colonies"   of   algae   that   are   visible   in   the water,    but    is    not    true    for    single    ceil    algae,    for    example,    that    exist    as    small    as    0.5    micron. Diatomaceous   earth   (DE)   filters   particles   down   to   1-3   microns,   sand   filters   particles   down   to   15- 20   microns,   cartridge   filters   particles   down   to   about   20   microns.   Generally,   if   you   can   see   it,   you can filter it. CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS The   word   CHELATE   is   derived   from   the   Greek   word   for   "claw".   In   pool   and   spa   chemistry chelate   means   a   chemical   treatment   to   control   or   "coat"   soluble   metal   ions   and   prevent   their oxidation   into   unwanted   colored   precipitates.   A   chelator   attaches   to   a   metal   ion   like   copper   or iron and wraps around it like a claw. There   are   many   types   of   chelators   available   in   the   market.   Among   the   most   widely   used   is   a group    of    organic    acids    called    "amino    polycarboxylic    acids".    These    chemicals    are    usually formulated   into   liquids   that   quickly   attach   to   copper   or   iron   ions   and   deactivate   them.   Please note   that   chelators   will   not   react   with   metals   such   as   finely   divided   iron   shavings   and   they   react very slowly with metals that are already oxidized or precipitated. Sequestrants    differ    from    chelators    in    the    way    they    "coat"    or    react    with    mineral    ions. Sequestrants   generally   have   a   few   active   sites   on   each   molecule   allowing   it   to   control   two   or more metal ions at a time. Because of this, sequestrants are often more powerful as stain removers and are often sold with specific stain removal directions. FACTS ABOUT CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS Many   chelators   and   sequestrants   have   metal   ION   PREFERENCES   called   "displacements".   This means   that   certain   metal   ions   will   be   coated   before   others.   The   usual   preference   is   iron,   then copper,   then   manganese,   then   calcium,   then   magnesium.   There   are   chelators   that   favor   calcium first. The   EFFECTIVENESS   of   chelators   and   sequestrants   to   coat   undesired   metal   ions   depends   on the   concentration   of   the   ions   to   be   chelated.   For   example,   it   is   easier   to   control   1   ppm   of   copper and 1 ppm of iron in soft water (50 ppm of calcium) than in   hard   water   (350   ppm   of   calcium).   The   presence   of   350   ppm   of   calcium   in   water,   for   example, will   occupy   a   large   portion   of   the   chelator   intended   to   control   the   copper   and   iron.   With   this   in mind   it   is   advisable   to   chelate   or   sequester   undesired   metal   ions   before   adding   calcium   to   the water. The   AMOUNT   of   chelator   or   sequestrant   needed   depends   on   the   type   of   metal   ions   present. For    example,    copper,    iron,    and    manganese    all    require    about    the    same    amount    of    chelator whereas    calcium    requires    50%    more    chelator.    Reactions    to    control    metal    ions    occur    within seconds in most cases. Chelators   and   sequestrants   are   PH   AND   OXIDIZER   sensitive.   Very   low   pH,   occurring   in   a "pocket"   of   water   where   acid   has   been   added,   can   cause   loss   of   chelation.   Very   high   pH,   again   a "pocket"   effect,   can   also   cause   chelation   failure   and   precipitation   of   copper   or   iron.   Because most   chelators   and   sequestrants   are   organic   molecules,   they   are   subject   to   attack   by   high   levels of   oxidizers   and   "wear   off'   over   time.   This   is   the   reason   that   most   product   labels   state   that continued   additions   may   be   necessary   to   control   metals.   With   this   in   mind,   it   is   obvious   that shock   treatments   should   not   be   performed   directly   after   chelators   or   sequestrants   have   been added. TEMPERATURE   and   TDS   (Total   Dissolved   Solids)   have   slight   effects   on   chelation.   According   to manufacturer    studies,    high    temperature    and    high    TDS    increase    the    amount    of    chelator    or sequestrant needed. METAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES Soluble metal ions such as copper or iron can exist in water in three different forms. They are: 1) Unreacted ions. Colorless but ready to react in some manner such as oxidation. 2) Ions already reacted but not yet precipitated. Colored water but not staining. 3) Ions already reacted and precipitated. Clear water but stained surfaces. There    are    four    different    techniques    used    to    control    metals    depending    on    their    state    as shown above. The control techniques are: Chemical   chelators or sequestrants pH control. The use of acids or alkalis Chemical    reduction.    The    use    of    strong    anti-oxidizers    Chlorination    or    oxidationChelators    and sequestrants   chemically   coat   ions   in   any   of   the   three   states.   Effectiveness   varies   based   on   pH, sanitizer level, calcium level, depth of stain and amount of stain. An   acid   wash   is   an   extreme   example   of   pH   control.   Strong   acid   breaks   the   bonds   of   reacted ions   and   releases   the   ions   to   the   unreacted   state.   Strong   alkali   such   as   sodium   carbonate   can bond   with   unreacted   ions   to   form   cloudy   precipitates   which   can   be   easily   filtered   or   flocked   and vacuumed to waste. Chemical   reduction   is   the   opposite   of   oxidation.   It   can   be   used   effectively   to   reverse   reacted iron   either   in   the   colored   or   precipitated   states.   Reduction   brings   the   iron   back   to   the   unreacted state. Under   certain   conditions   chlorination   or   other   forms   of   oxidation   such   as   granular   oxygen compounds    or    ozonation,    are    used    to    produce    a    cloudy    precipitate    that    is    easily    filtered    or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Metal Control Products Product Type: Chelator  Sequestrant  Reduction  Oxidation  Chlorination  Trade Name Example Chonchelate, Metal Out  Sequest, Stain Off, Spa Demineralizer  Conquest  Demineralizer  Shock II, Sho2X  Hit Hard, More Chlor CYANURIC ACID TESTING The   Cyanuric   Acid   (Stabilizer)   test   is   perhaps   the   most   inconsistent   water   test   performed. Some of the problems of reporting and reproducing accurate Cyanuric Acid readings are: 1)   Temperature   of   the   sample.   Try   to   keep   and   test   the   water   sample   at   room         temperature.   The colder the water, the lower the test resuIt. 2)   Waiting   time   before   reading.   Be   consistent   at   the   recommended   30   seconds   before   …. reading. The shorter the time interval, the lower the test result. 3)    Viewing    tube    cloudiness.    Due    to    a    reaction    with    the    Cyanuric    reagent,    Viewing    ,,,, Tubes become   cloudy   over   a   period   of   a   few   months.   Be   sure   to   rinse   the   Viewing   Tube   carefully   after each use. Cloudy tubes are hard to read. 4)   Reading   higher   levels   of   Cyanuric   Acid.   The   markings   of   60,   80,   and   100   ppm   level   …. on   …. the Viewing   Tube   are   increasingly   close   together.   Only   a   fraction   of   an   inch   …. separates   …. the   60 ppm mark from the 100 ppm mark. Rather than guess in this …. higher   range,   redo   the   test   by   diluting   the   water   sample   in   half   with   tap   water   to   …. put   …. the test   result   in   a   more   readable   range.   Then   double   your   reading   to   more   …. accurately   report   the Cyanuric Acid level. Always dilute the water sample and redo …. the test when over 100 ppm. An   interesting   problem   with   Cyanuric   Acid   results   is   that   high   levels   of   Cyanuric   Acid   notably affects Total Alkalinity. When measuring Total Alkalinity follow this formula: Total Alkalinity - (Cyanuric Acid level x .30) = True Total Alkalinity THE FUNGUS (Dark Stains On Liners) During   the   past   four   years   a   small,   but   growing   number   of   above   ground   and   in   ground   vinyl liner    pools    have    developed    dark    colored    stains    that    do    not    respond    to    normal    chemical treatments   such   as   shock   treatments   or   algaecides.   Nor   can   these   stains   be   brushed   off   or scraped   off.   They   appear   to   be   caused   by   unusual   fungus   attacks.   In   many   cases   these   stains   can be   bleached   out   for   a   time   ranging   from   one   week   up   to   two   years   (depending   on   the   severity   of the stain) using the following procedure: 1) Adjust the pH, if necessary, to 7.2-7.8 2) Adjust the Total Alkalinity, if necessary to 100-150 ppm 3) Turn off the filtration system and allow the water to sit. 4)   Prior   to   this   step   it   is   very   important   to               note   that   Trichloro   Granules   should   not   contact   the vinyl   liner   for   more   than   fifteen   (15)   minutes   in   order   to   prevent   the   …. vinyl   liner   from   bleaching! Pour   2   lbs.   of   Nuclo   QUICK   KILL   or   Ortex   TRICHLORO   GRANULAR   or   equivalent   directly   on   the affected areas. 5) Spread the granules evenly over the stains and allow direct contact for 7-10 minutes.                                          Then   push   the   granular   pile   to   the   next   affected   area   with   a   wide   pool   brush.   For   stains   in sloped   areas,   pour   granules   into   a   deep-pocket   leaf   net   and   …. allow   the   net   to   lie   on   the   affected area    for    7-10    minutes.    If    granules    fail    through    …. the    mesh    of    the    leaf    net,    an    alternative approach   is   to   pour   about   1/2   lb.   of   …. granules   into   the   toe   of   nylon   panty   hose.   Nylon   hose   has   a much   finer   mesh   …. construction.   In   any   event,   the   granules   must   not   contact   the   vinyl   liner   for more   …. than   fifteen   (15)   minutes   in   order   to   prevent   the   vinyl   liner   from   bleaching.   Please   test this procedure on a small area to determine your vinyl liner's reactivity. When the stain removal procedure   is   complete,   start   the   filtration   system   and   vacuum   the   remaining   granules   in   the filter. NITRIFICATION & CHLORINE DEMAND How   green   is   a   green   pool?   When   is   a   normal   shock   treatment   the   correct   dose   compared   to a treatment 3x normal? Or 5x? These   questions   test   the   imagination   of   anyone   who   is   asked   to   describe   a   "green   pool." Maybe   one   should   be   asked,   "Can   you   see   the   shallow   end   bottom,   the   hopper,   or   even   the   deep end bottom?" WHAT IS NITRIFICATION? If   green   is   really   green,   it's   a   good   bet   that   nitrification   has   taken   place.   Nitrification   is   a micro   biological   process   in   which   ammonia   (NH3)is   converted   by   oxidation   into   nitrite   (N02)   and nitrate   (N03).   This   process   is   carried   out   by   two   bacteria   known   as   Nitrosomonas   .   But   first, ammonia   must   be   formed.   The   sources   of   ammonia   are   quite   plentiful:   inorganic   fertilizers, plant    protein    decay    (leaves    etc.)    and    animal    protein    decay    (bugs    etc.)    Specialized    bacteria decompose   the   proteins   into   ammonia   in   part   of   an   ongoing   cycle   called   the   NITROGEN   CYCLE. (see   Nitrogen   Cycle   Chart).   Nitrosomonas,   in   turn,   get   their   energy   or   "food"   from   the   newly created   ammonia   and   carbon   dioxide,   both   present   in   the   water.   Once   nitrification   begins,   an accelerating   cycle   develops.   The   nitrates,   once   formed,   are   great   algae   nutrients!   And   as   nitrates accumulate,    algae    bloom    and    the    water    turns    greener    and    greener.    As    the    Nitrogen    Cycle progresses,   more   and   more   plant   life   becomes   available   for   further   bacterial   decomposition   into more and more ammonia. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS? Nitrification   leads   to   water   conditions   that   range   from   slight   odor   to   major   algae   bloom. These   conditions   have   been   observed   in   both   swimming   pools   and   in   municipal   waste   water treatment   systems.   The   color   can   range   from   a   light   green   tint   to   an   emerald   or   dark   green,   or even   a   black.   Water   clarity   can   range   from   a   hazy   deep   end   to   almost   solid   color   at   a   depth   of   a few inches. WHAT CONDITIONS FAVOR NITRIFICATION? The   primary   influence   is   the   level   of   ammonia   present.   And   this   level,   in   turn,   depends   on the   level   of   decomposing   plant   and   animal   life,   and   certain   fertilizers.   A   second   factor   is   pH, especially   in   the   range   of   pH=   7.5-8.5.   A   third   factor   is   water   temperature   in   the   range   of70-85F.   A fourth   factor   is   periods   of   extended   darkness   (covered   pools)   followed   by   exposure   to   sunlight (promotes   algae   growth).   Clearly   the   "worst   case   scenario"   is   a   pool   that   is   carelessly   winterized (not   cleaned   or   vacuumed,   little   or   no   sanitizer   added),poorly   covered   (rips,   pin   holes,   too   small etc.), and left covered late into the spring (long incubation and warming water). WHAT CAN BE DONE? Testing   for   Nitrification   is   too   complicated   for   a   single   test   such   as   a   nitrate   test   (being   used by   some   pool   dealers   to   identify   the   problem).   A   nitrate   test   will   only   test   one   part   of   the   cycle. Research   *   indicates,   for   example,   that   Nitrosomonas   bacteria   secrete   organic   compounds   that actually   stimulate   the   growth   of   other   types   of   bacteria.   A   test   for   these   bacteria   would   be needed   too.   Data   from   the   Metropolitan   Water   District   of   So.   Cal.   shows   5-10   ppm   of   chlorine effective   in   controlling   mild   nitrification.   Severe   cases   can   require   25-50   ppm   of   chlorine   (5x shock treatment) and repeated treatments in some cases.
Hartsell Pool Renovations
817-485-7525
Hartsell Pool Renovations
817-485-7525
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Take   care   of   your   pool   and   it   will   provide   you with   enjoyable   swimming   year   after   year.   If   you follow   the   basics   of   proper   chemical   treatment and   filtration,pool   care   will   be   simple   and   easy to follow. This    section    will    guide    you    through    the    steps you   should   take   from   pool   start-up,to   in-season care,     to     winter     protection.     It     even     covers important    tips    on    safetyaround    your    pool    and contains a handy trouble-shooting guide. SIZING YOUR POOL You   must   know   the   amount   of   water   that your    pool    holds    in    order    to    know    how    much chemical   to   use.   Here   is   a   simple   chart   to   figure out   your   pool   volume.   All   measurements   should be taken in feet. ROUND:    Diameter        x            Diameter        x        Average Depth x 5.9 = Gallons RECTANGLE:   Length      x         Width      x         Average   Depth x 7.5 = Gallons OVAL:   Long   Dia.      x      Short   Dia.      x      Average   Depth      x     5.9 Gallons For   all   other   pools   ask   your   builder,   retailer,   or serviceman for help. FILTER SYSTEMS There       are       three       basic       filter       types: diatomaceous    earth    (DE),    sand,    and    cartridge. Even   though   each   pool   may   have   its   own   unique plumbing   design,   all   filter   systems   will   perform the    same    job.    Pool    water    is    drawn    through    a skimmer   or   a   drain   and   pumped   through   a   filter which       removes       dirt,       algae       and       visible contaminants    that    enter    the    pool.    You    must operate    the    filter    system    at    least    eight    hours per   day   in   order   to   remove   wastes   effectively. Remember,    by    filtering    properly    you    will    help avoid      contaminant      build-up      and      save      on chemical     costs!     You     can     protect     your     filter system   by   adding   the   correct   amount   of   sand   or DE    and    cleaning    your    filter    regularly    with    a FILTER     CLEANER     to     remove     oils     and     other organics   like   lint   or   hair   that   may   lodge   in   your filter.    Occasionally    you    may    need    to    apply    a CLARIFIER     to     help     your     filter     trap     minute particles     that     may     be     passing     through     the system. WATER BALANCE Your    pool    is    designed    to    hold    the    same water      for      many      years.      You      filter      it      and chemically   treat   it   over   and   over   again.   During this   period   of   time   the   water   can   drift   out   of balance    and    cause    corrosion,    scaling    or    even stains   to   appear.   You   can   easily   prevent   these problems    by    paying    attention    to    the    basics    of water     balance.     A     good     quality     test     kit     will measure   the   key   components   of   water   balance-- pH,   Total   Alkalinity,   and   Acid   or   Alkali   Demand. Use    your    kit    often    until    you    become    familiar with    your    pool    and    supplement    your    tests    by having    your    professional    pool    dealer    perform detailed     tests     on     occasion     to     verify     your readings    and    spot    trends    that    could    lead    to potential problems. pH Measures    the    acidity    or    alkalinity    of    pool water   on   a   scale   of   "0-   14".   Extreme   acid   is   "0" and   extreme   alkali   is   "14".   The   proper   pH   range is   7.2-7.8.   pH   readings   greater   than   7.8   will   lead to   cloudy   water   and   scaling   on   all   pool   surfaces, inefficient   sanitizing,   and   swimmer   discomfort. pH   readings   less   than   7.2   will   lead   to   corrosion of    metal    parts    such    as    heaters    and    ladders, wrinkled      vinyl      liners,      etched      plaster,      and swimmer    discomfort.    You    can    easily    maintain proper     pH     by     using     pH     DECREASER     or     pH INCREASER     when     needed     according     to     label directions. TOTAL ALKALINITY Measures   the   level   of   certain   minerals   that help    control    the    pH    of    your    pool    water.    The proper   range   of   Total   Alkalinity   is   between   80- 150   ppm   (parts   per   million).   Low   Total   Alkalinity allows   the   pH   to   fluctuate   or   "bounce"   in   either direction    and    can    make    it    difficult    for    you    to keep    the    pH    stable.    For    that    reason    another name   for   Total   Alkalinity   is   "pH   Stabilizer".   Raise Total     Alkalinity     by     using     TOTAL     ALKALINITY "INCREASER"   according   to   label   directions.   High Total   Alkalinity   locks   in   the   pH,   but   usually   at   pH levels    above    7.8.    This    condition    needs    to    be corrected   with   pH   DECREASER   or   muriatic   acid. Vinyl,     painted     and     fiberglass     pools     usually require   somewhat   higher   Total   Alkalinity   levels than   plaster   pools   and   you   should   consult   your professional   pool   store   or   serviceman   for   more details. HARDNESS Measures       the       level       of       calcium       and magnesium   minerals   present   in   your   pool   water. These   minerals   exist   naturally   in   all   water   but the    levels    vary    greatly    from    one    part    of    the country     to     another.     "Soft     water"     typically contains   50   ppm   Hardness   or   less   while   "hard water"   may   contain   300   ppm   Hardness   or   more. The    proper    range    for    plaster    pools    is    175-300 ppm      Hardness      and      for      vinyl,      painted      or fiberglass   pools   the   proper   range   is   125-250   ppm Hardness.    Pool    water    low    in    Hardness    causes etching      of      plaster      and      corrosion      of      pool surfaces.    Raise    Hardness    by    adding    CALCIUM HARDNESS       INCREASER       according       to       label directions.   Pool   water   high   in   Hardness   causes cloudiness    and    scaling    to    occur.    Control    these symptoms    by    using    SCALE    OR    STAIN    REMOVER according   to   label   directions   or   drain   a   portion of     the     water     and     refill     with     water     low     in Hardness to dilute the mineral level. MINERAL CONTROL Is    an    important    concern    for    pool    owners who    use    well    water    or    for    pools    that    contain copper       plumbing       such       as       heaters.       Both conditions   can   yield   trace   levels   iron,   copper   or even       manganese       that       can       cause       water discoloration    and    staining.    Such    discoloration can   appear   green,   blue,   brown   or   even   black   in color.    This    is    caused    by    the    reaction    between your   sanitizer   and   the   particular   trace   minerals in   your   pool   water.   You   can   prevent   the   problem by   having   your   pool   water   professionally   tested for   these   minerals   when   your   pool   is   being   filled or    at    any    time    during    the    season.    If    staining minerals    are    present    apply    SCALE    OR    STAIN REMOVER   as   soon   as   possible   according   to   label directions.   Re-apply   the   treatment   if   necessary and   consult   with   your   professional   pool   dealer or serviceman for more information. STABILIZER Refers   to   "chlorine   stabilizer",   the   final   part of   pool   water   balance.   This   is   a   chemical   that prevents    the    ultra-violet    rays    (UV)    of    sunlight from   prematurely   breaking   down   your   sanitizer level   so   that   it   can   do   it's   job   sanitizing   the   pool water.       CHLORINE       STABILIZER       will       reduce sanitizer    consumption    by    up    to    50%    and    need only   be   added   once   for   the   entire   life   of   the   pool water.   Apply   CHLORINE   STABILIZER   according   to label   directions   and   do   not   backwash   for   at   least 24 hours. SANITIZERS Now   that   your   pool   water   is   balanced   and stabilized,   iris   time   to   sanitize   it   with   chlorine. There    are    many    types    of    chlorine    and    your professional     pool     dealer     or     serviceman     will explain    them    all    to    you.    The    most    economical and         convenient         choice         is         STABILIZED CHLORINATING   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   This   type   of chlorine   is   applied   weekly   and   is   not   affected   by sunlight    like    HTH    or    liquid    bleach.    You    can dispense   TABLETS   or   STICKS   by   placing   them   in   a chlorinator,    a    floating    feeder,    or    a    skimmer basket.    Again,    your    dealer    or    serviceman    will guide   you   to   the   approach   that   is   best   for   your pool.   The   EPA   (Environmental   Protection   Agency) has   determined   that   you   must   maintain   a   level of   1.0-1.5   ppm   of   available   chlorine   at   all   times to    continuously    kill    bacteria,    algae    and    other micro-organisms   that   try   to   inhabit   your   pool. By   using   slow   dissolving   TABLETS   or   STICKS   you will   be   able   to   give   your   pool   24   hour   protection. During   pool   start-up   you   may   need   extra   doses of   chlorine   in   order   to   satisfy   the   initial   demand of     the     water.     This     demand     could     include contaminants   such   as   organics   and   debris   that built   up   before   you   started   using   chlorine.   Use your   test   kit   often   to   check   your   chlorine   level and   adjust   your   chlorinator   or   floater   as   needed to     increase     or     decrease     the     flow.          A     few important   factors   affect   the   amount   of   TABLETS or    STICKS    that    you    will    consume.    They    are: Temperature,   Bathing   Load,   Rainfall   and   pH.   The warmer   the   pool   water,   the   greater   the   use   of TABLETS    or    STICKS.    In    fact,    pool    water    at    80ø- 85øF    will    require    twice    the    chlorine    of    pool water   at   60-65øF!   The   greater   the   bathing   load, the   greater   the   use   of   TABLETS   or   STICKS.   Heavily used    pools    increase    the    load    of    contaminants such     as     perspiration,     mucous     and     tanning lotions,    all    of    which    consumes    chlorine.    The greater    the    rainfall,    the    greater    the    use    of TABLETS      or      STICKS.      Rain      washes      airborne contaminants   such   as   pollen   and   algae   spores into   the   pool   and   tends   to   lower   the   pH   of   the water    by    contributing    "acid    rain",    a    chemical reaction   between   rain   and   air   pollution.   Finally, low   pH   causes   chlorine   to   be   "overactive"   and dissipate    too    quickly.    Proper    control    of    Total Alkalinity    will    prevent    low    pH    and    save    on chemical    costs.        If    you    prefer    to    sanitize    your pool   water   by   hand,   STABILIZED   CHLORINATING GRANULES   is   the   proper   choice.   These   granules are   rapidly   and   completely   soluble   in   all   water temperatures    and    provide    the    same    24    hour protection that you get from TABLETS or STICKS. SHOCK TREATMENTS Various     contaminants     such     as     swimmer waste,     lotions     and     oils     can     resist     normal chlorination    and    start    to    build    up    in    the    pool water.   This   build   up   usually   occurs   during   hot weather    and    periods    of    heavy    bathing    when your     filter     is     already     working     overtime.     A weekly       SHOCK       treatment,       when       applied according    to    label    directions,    will    oxidize    or burn-up    these    contaminants.    A    SHOCK    quickly raises     the     chlorine     level     to     overcome     the contaminants   for   a   period   of   12-24   hours.   It   is best   to   apply   SHOCK   in   early   evening   so   that   it can    work    overnight    and    be    burned    down    to normal   levels   the   next   day.   Be   sure   to   continue to run your filter during this period of time. ALGAECIDES Algaecides     are     excellent     treatments     to prevent    or    kill    algae    growth    when    used    with chlorine.   As   a   preventative,   algaecides   act   as   an insurance     policy     in     your     pool,     killing     algae spores   as   they   enter   the   water.   Algae   spores   are constantly    entering    your    pool    from    rain,    wind and    dust    storms    and    they    multiply    rapidly    in sunlight   and   warm   water.   Routine   chlorination cannot,   at   times,   cope   with   the   rapid   growth   of an   algae   "bloom",   the   visible   outburst   of   algae. These    algae    can    appear    green,    brown,    black, mustard   or   even   pink   in   color.   By   the   time   algae has   bloomed   there   are   millions   of   algae   cells   in every    gallon    of    water!    Your    professional    pool dealer   or   serviceman   has   a   variety   of   algaecides for   all   kinds   of   algae   and   will   recommend   the best choice for either prevention or killing needs PRODUCT LIST STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (3" Size) *   Slow   dissolving,   89%   available   chlorine,   7   oz. wrapped tablets, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING TABLETS (1" Size) *   Slow   dissolving,   89%   available   chlorine,   1/2   oz. tablets, For use in Floaters or chlorinators. STABILIZED CHLORINATING STICKS (2" Diameter) *   Slow   dissolving,   89%   available   chlorine,   8   oz. sticks, For use in Floaters, chlorinators, or skimmers. STABILIZED CHLORINATING GRANULES . Fast dissolving, 62% available chlorine granules, 100% soluble, For hand feeding. BROMINATING TABLETS (1" Size) . Slow       dissolving,       61%       available       bromine, alternative to chlorine, For use in brominators. UNSTABILIZED    CHLORINATING    GRANULES    .    Fast dissolving, 65%      available      chlorine      granules,      contains calcium, For hand Feeding. STABILIZER      *      Slow      dissolving,      100%      active granules, to prevent      sunlight      From      lowering      available chlorine in pool water. pH   INCREASER   *   Fast   dissolving,   100%   active,   to raise pH. pH   DECREASER   .   Fast   dissolving,   95%   active,   to lower pH TOTAL ALKALINITY INCREASER . Fast    dissolving,    100%    active    Sodium    Hydrogen Carbonate, to raise and stabilize pH. CALCIUM HARDNESS INCREASER *    Fast    dissolving,    100%    active,    to    raise    and balance calcium level. SHOCK      TREATMENT      .      Fast      dissolving,      65% available chlorine   granules,   to   oxidize   contaminants   that build up during year. ALGAECIDES    .    A    variety    of    maximum    strength algaecides, to prevent and kill a broad range oF algae. Check     with     your     dealer     or     serviceman     for details. SPECIALTY   CHEMICALS   .   A   variety   oF   specialties For clarifying, stain      and      scale      control,      filter      or      surface cleaning. Check     with     your     dealer     or     serviceman     For details. TROUBLESHOOTING Sometimes   even   the   most   experienced   pool managers   run   into   problems   that   require   special treatments.    Here    are    a    number    of    the    most common problems and recommended actions. CLOUDY WATER Make    sure    the    filter    is    operating    properly and   the   correct   amount   of   filter   media   has   been used.   Adjust   the   pH,   if   necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   and SHOCK   treat   the   water.   If   the   condition   does   not improve    try    adding    a    CLARIFIER    or    filter    aid. Continue    filtering    and    maintain    the    required level   of   chlorine.   If   your   pool   water   is   "old"   and has    a    high    level    of    dissolved    solids    (calcium, stabilizer,    chlorides    and    other    salts)    you    may need   to   drain   a   portion   of   the   water   and   refill with   fresh   water.   Your   dealer   or   serviceman   can test this for you and advise the correct action. ALGAE There    are    many    types    of    algae    that    can infect    pool    water.    The    most    common    types, floating   or   clinging   green   algae,   respond   quickly to    a    SHOCK    treatment    and    dose    of    maximum strength   ALGAECIDE.   Be   sure   to   adjust   the   pH,   if necessary,   to   7.2-7.8   before   shocking   and   brush all   pool   surfaces   to   expose   algae   hiding   in   cracks or   wrinkles.   Apply   the   algaecide   the   next   day. Pink   algae   and   mustard   algae   require   extra   care because   they   both   tend   to   re-infect   pool   water very   easily.   Treat   pink   algae   in   the   same   manner as   already   outlined   but,   in   addition,   sanitize   all pool   parts   that   come   in   contact   with   the   water, such      as      the      vacuum      hose      and      head,      by immersing    them    in    the    pool    during    the    shock treatment.    Treat    mustard    algae    with    a    special algaecide      designed      to      combat      this      strain. Clinging   black   algae   that   tends   to   appear   as   dots or    nodules    can    be    treated    by    applying    a    slow dissolving    granular    algaecide    directly    on    the algae   and   by   brushing   the   algae   vigorously   to expose     it's     roots.     In     all     cases     apply     the ALGAECIDE   directly   into   the   pool   as   close   to   the algae as possible. COLORED WATER Reddish      or      brownish      colored      water      is usually   caused   by   oxidized   iron   or   manganese. Treat     the     pool     water     with     STAIN     &     SCALE REMOVER   to   coat   the   minerals   and   prevent   the oxidation    process.    Greenish    or    bluish    colored water   is   usually   caused   by   oxidized   copper.   Treat the    condition    as    above    and    consult    with    your dealer   or   serviceman   for   more   details.   Be   sure not   to   confuse   green,   slimy   water   that   indicates an     algae     infection     with     the     greenish     cast associated with copper. STAINS AND SCALE Stains    can    develop    when    colored    water    is left   unattended   or   when   metals   such   as   coins are   accidentally   left   in   the   pool.   Scale   is   a   crusty build    up    on    pool    floors    and    walls    caused    by excessive    calcium    levels    and    high    pH.    Usually both    conditions    must    occur    for    scale    to    form. Both    stains    and    scale    can    be    controlled    by lowering    the    pH,    if    necessary,    and    by    using STAIN    AND    SCALE    REMOVER    according    to    label directions. Severe   conditions,   especially   in   plastered   pools, may    require    an    "acid    wash",    a    draining    and cleaning       performed       by       your       dealer       or serviceman. CHLORINE: TOO HIGH OR TOO LOW Inability   to   hold   a   chlorine   reading   usually indicates   lack   of   STABILIZER   in   the   water.   Have your    water    tested    for    STABILIZER    and    add    if necessary.   Also   be   sure   to   check   your   floater   or chlorinator   to   insure   a   supply   of   chlorine.   Low readings     could     signal     an     excessive     chlorine demand    that    is    not    being    met.    In    this    case,    a SHOCK   treatment   would   be   appropriate.   Finally, your    testing    chemicals    (reagents)    may    be    old and    need    to    be    replenished.    Check    with    your dealer   or   serviceman   for   accurate   water   testing. A    high    chlorine    reading    that    won't    dissipate gradually    may    indicate    too    much    chlorine    is being   added   to   the   water.   Check   your   floater   or chlorinator   and   make   the   necessary   adjustment. On   occasion   chloramines   (chlorine   reacted   with swimmer    waste)    can    develop    and    cause    the chlorine   reading   to   remain   high.   In   this   case,   a SHOCK     treatment     corrects     the     condition     by breaking up the chloramines. WINTER CARE If      you      live      in      a      climate      that      requires winterization    of    your    pool    you    should    follow these simple steps. 1.    Have    your    water    tested    professionally    and add any necessary balancers at this time. 2.    Vacuum    the    pool    thoroughly    and    clean    the filter. 3.   If   you   have   minerals,   high   calcium   level,   or   a new plaster pool add STAIN AND SCALE CONTROL directly to the water. 4.    While    the    pool    is    still    circulating,    SHOCK    it according to label direction   and   be   sure   to   distribute   the   SHOCK evenly. 5.     Prevent     winter     algae     growth     by     adding ALGAECIDE the followingday. 6.   Lower   the   water   level   if   desired,   plug   all   lines and drain water from the equipment to prevent freeze damage. 7.           Follow           all           equipment           makers recommendations for winter care. 8.    Add    pool    grade    anti-freeze    to    the    lines    to prevent freezing. 9.    Cover    the    pool    with    either    a    mesh    or    solid cover and fasten itsecurely. Consult   with   your   dealer   or   serviceman   for   the cover that is best foryour pool and for more details about winter care. SAFETY TIPS Your     pool     will     bring     years     of     safe     and enjoyable   swimming   if   you   follow   these   simple rules. 1.   No   running,   pushing,   or   foolish   play   in   or   near the pool. 2. No diving in shallow or unmarked pools. 3. Children must be supervised at all times. 4.   Safety   fencing   should   be   added   (check   local building codes). 5.   Keep   a   first   aid   kit   and   manual,   a   life   ring,   and a pole on site at all times. Browser Fixed Safe    handling    of    chemicals    should also be the rule. 1.   Chlorine   products   emit   powerful   chlorine   gas and should never be opened indoors   and   when   opened,   avoid   breathing fumes. 2.   Label   directions   for   use   must   be   followed   at all times. 3.   Do   not   mix   chemicals.   A   violent   reaction   can occur. 4. Never add water to chemicals. 5.     Read     all     warning     statements     on     product labels. 6.   Do   not   take   advise   from   others   or   experiment on your own. 7.    Store    all    chemicals    in    a    cool,    dry    place    and keep sealed. 8.   Most   important   of   all,   KEEP   CHEMICALS   AWAY FROM CHILDREN. ALGAECIDES: MANY CURES Algae       are       constantly       infecting       water through    airborne    contact    which    is    accelerated by   rain   and   wind.   If   algae   spores   are      killed   off   as they      enter      the      water      by      using      repeated algaestatic   or   maintenance   doses   of   algaecides, the incidents of alga bloom    are    effectively    eliminated.    This    is    an "insurance    policy"    approach    compared    to    the cost of treating alga bloom. If   algae   does   bloom   (become   visible),   then the   best   approach   is   to   adjust   the   pH=   7.2-7.8, shock     treat     the     water     with     7-10     ppm          of available   chlorine,   brush   all   surfaces   vigorously, and   follow   with   a   killing   dose   (   5x   maintenance dose) of algaecide. Continue    to    filter    and    backwash,    if    necessary, during the entire episode. According        to        the        United        States        EPA (Environmental   Protection   Agency)   all   approved algaecides     prevent     and     kill     most     strains     of algae.    There    is    no    rule    or    clear-cut    order    to determine   which   algaecide   to   use,   so   choosing algaecides is similar to choosing    medicines.    Start    with    your    favored choice   and   proceed   from   there.   If   algae   persists, try another choice. Here   are   the   algaecide   choices   and their characteristics: QUAT   TYPE   :   This   is   the   nickname   for   Quaternary ammonium     chloride.     It     is     economical,     long- lasting,     non-staining     (non-metallic),     excellent wetting      properties      (penetrates      microscopic cracks).    Will    foam    if    overdosed.    Best    used    for floating    green,    clinging    green    and    pink    algae. POLYMER    TYPE        This    is    the    nickname    for    an organic   polymer.   It   is   fairly   expensive,   very   long lasting,         non-staining,         and         non-foaming. Manufacturer   data   suggests   it   is   more   stable   in the   presence   of   high   chlorine   than   "quats."   Best used    for    black    (Dark    green    complex)    and    pink algae. COPPER     TYPE     This     is     a     chelated     (controlled) copper   solution.   It   is   very   economical,   very   long lasting,     and     non     foaming.     Can     cause     blue staining   or   "green"   hair.   Best   used   for   floating green   and   mustard   algae.   SILVER   TYPE   .   This   is   a silver    colloid    (controlled)    solution.    It    is    very expensive,   short   lived   (curative   use   only),   and non   foaming.   Can   cause   brown   staining   if   mis- handled.   Best   used   for   black   and   mustard   algae. All    other    approved    algaecides    are    dilutions    or blends of these four types. ACID             &             BASE             DEMAND CALCULATIONS Don't        overlook        the        importance        of performing   Base   Demand   Tests   if   your   pH   is   6.8 or   lower   and   Acid   Demand   Tests   if   your   pH   is   8.2 or higher. Many    water    samples    are    being    reported with   pH--   6.8   when,   in   fact,   the   true   pH   might   be 5.0-6.5!   Taking   time   to   perform   the   Base   Demand Test   will   take   the   guess   work   out   of   adjusting the pH. Look at the difference: pH    Reading                    Amount    of    Product    Needed    to Attain pH=7.5 6.8                           1.5   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per   10,000 gallons 6.5                           4.5   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per   10,000 gallons 6.0                        10-12   lbs.   Sodium   Carbonate   per   10,000 gallons If    a    pool    owner    uses    1.5    lbs.    of    Sodium Carbonate   when   5   or   10   lbs.   is   actually   required, the pH reading will still appear as 6.8. Rule   of   thumb:   For   each   drop   of   Base   Demand, use   one-third   (1/3)   lb.   of   Sodium   Carbonate   per 10,000 gallons. The   calculation   for   Acid   Demand   reveals   a similar     pattern     with     an     extra     complication related    to    the    level    of    Total    Alkalinity.    This    is especially    true    in    hard    water    areas    and    with curing   plastered   pools.   An   extra   amount   of   acid may be needed to lower the both Total Alkalinity and pH. pH   Reading                     Amount   of   Dry   Acid   Needed   to Attain pH= 7.5 8.2           1.5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 8.5           4-5 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons 9.0        10-12 lbs. Dry Acid per 10,000 gallons For    those    who    prefer    Muriatic    Acid,    the conversion   factor   from   Dry   Acid   to   Muriatic   Acid (Hydrochloric Acid) is: 10   lbs.   of   Dry   Acid   --   One   (1)   Gallon   of   Muriatic Acid Because   of   the   connection   between   high   pH and       high       Total       Alkalinity       the       following information    should    be    considered.    The        most common   technique   to   reduce   Total   Alkalinity   is to   pour   Muriatic   Acid   in   a   series   of   "pockets"   in the   deep   end   of   a   pool,   keeping   away   from   the walls   and   floor,   if   possible.   Use   of   Muriatic   Acid seems     to     reduce     Total     Alkalinity     with     less impact on pH than use of Dry Acid. Rule   of   thumb:   1   Gallon   of   Muriatic   Acid   reduces 60 ppm of Total Alkalinity in 10,000 gallons. ALGAE: SOME STUBBORN FACTS Algae,   algae,   algae...   green,   black,   mustard, and   pink.   Why   do   you   use   algaecides?   When   do you     dose?     Which     one?     How     much?     These questions    are    asked    over    and    over    again.    It seems    that    everyone    has    their    own    opinions about   algae   control   and   here   are   some   of   the most widely held beliefs: Algaecides      are      not      necessary      because chlorine   kills   all.   This   may   be   true   in   theory,   but the   chlorine   level   must   be   kept   high   at   all   times (3   ppm   or   higher)   and   not   permitted   to   slip.   This can    be    expensive,    irritating    to    swimmers,    will lead   to   bleached   swimwear   and   vinyl   liners,   and is    difficult    to    maintain.    Even    in    high    chlorine, some   algae   "habitate"   or   become   accustomed   to a    steady    level.    In    tropical    areas,    for    example, black   algae   sets   "roots"   and   seals   itself   with   a tar-like   coating   that   is   unaffected   by   high   levels of   chlorine.   Mustard   algae   is   another   algae   that seems to thrive in chlorinated water. Algaecides    are    killers    and    Algaestats    are preventatives.    This    may    be    true    by    definition but   one   product   does   both   jobs.   The   EPA   does not    recognize    the    difference    between    killing visible    algae    (Algaecide)    and    killing    invisible algae   (Algaestat).   Invisible   algae   sounds   like   a contradiction   but,   in   fact,   thousands   of   algae   are growing   before   they   become   visible   in   an   algae bloom. Algae    doesn't    grow    in    low    pH    water.    Not true.   The   most   common   types   of   algae   such   as "planktonic    blue-greens"    prefer    pH=7.4-9.0.    but many   types   live   in   pH--   5.0-7.0.   During   periods   of hot          weather          and          intense          sunlight, photosynthesis    is    at    its    peak.    As    algae    grow, carbon    dioxide    (food    for    algae)    is    withdrawn from   the   water   and   the   pH   drifts   upward.   It   is most common to see a green pool with a pH-- 8.0. Algae       doesn't       grow       in       cold       water. Temperatures    have    to    drop    to    near    freezing before   algae   move   into   a   dormant   state.   Studies in   the   Arctic   Circle   indicate   that   as   long   as   light is present algae will grow. Algae   can   be   filtered   out   of   water.   This   is true   for   "colonies"   of   algae   that   are   visible   in   the water,   but   is   not   true   for   single   ceil   algae,   for example,    that    exist    as    small    as    0.5    micron. Diatomaceous   earth   (DE)   filters   particles   down to   1-3   microns,   sand   filters   particles   down   to   15- 20    microns,    cartridge    filters    particles    down    to about   20   microns.   Generally,   if   you   can   see   it, you can filter it. CHELATORS & SEQUESTRANTS The   word   CHELATE   is   derived   from   the   Greek word    for    "claw".    In    pool    and    spa    chemistry chelate   means   a   chemical   treatment   to   control or   "coat"   soluble   metal   ions   and   prevent   their oxidation   into   unwanted   colored   precipitates.   A chelator   attaches   to   a   metal   ion   like   copper   or iron and wraps around it like a claw. There   are   many   types   of   chelators   available in   the   market.   Among   the   most   widely   used   is   a group        of        organic        acids        called        "amino polycarboxylic      acids".      These      chemicals      are usually     formulated     into     liquids     that     quickly attach    to    copper    or    iron    ions    and    deactivate them.   Please   note   that   chelators   will   not   react with   metals   such   as   finely   divided   iron   shavings and   they   react   very   slowly   with   metals   that   are already oxidized or precipitated. Sequestrants    differ    from    chelators    in    the way    they    "coat"    or    react    with    mineral    ions. Sequestrants   generally   have   a   few   active   sites on   each   molecule   allowing   it   to   control   two   or more    metal    ions    at    a    time.    Because    of    this, sequestrants are often more   powerful   as   stain   removers   and   are   often sold with specific stain removal directions. FACTS         ABOUT         CHELATORS         & SEQUESTRANTS Many     chelators     and     sequestrants     have metal   ION   PREFERENCES   called   "displacements". This    means    that    certain    metal    ions    will    be coated    before    others.    The    usual    preference    is iron,      then      copper,      then      manganese,      then calcium,    then    magnesium.    There    are    chelators that favor calcium first. The       EFFECTIVENESS       of       chelators       and sequestrants     to     coat     undesired     metal     ions depends   on   the   concentration   of   the   ions   to   be chelated.   For   example,   it   is   easier   to   control   1 ppm   of   copper   and   1   ppm   of   iron   in   soft   water (50 ppm of calcium) than in     hard     water     (350     ppm     of     calcium).     The presence    of    350    ppm    of    calcium    in    water,    for example,    will    occupy    a    large    portion    of    the chelator    intended    to    control    the    copper    and iron.   With   this   in   mind   it   is   advisable   to   chelate or   sequester   undesired   metal   ions   before   adding calcium to the water. The    AMOUNT    of    chelator    or    sequestrant needed    depends    on    the    type    of    metal    ions present.      For      example,      copper,      iron,      and manganese   all   require   about   the   same   amount of   chelator   whereas   calcium   requires   50%   more chelator.   Reactions   to   control   metal   ions   occur within seconds in most cases. Chelators     and     sequestrants     are     PH     AND OXIDIZER   sensitive.   Very   low   pH,   occurring   in   a "pocket"   of   water   where   acid   has   been   added, can   cause   loss   of   chelation.   Very   high   pH,   again   a "pocket"   effect,   can   also   cause   chelation   failure and    precipitation    of    copper    or    iron.    Because most    chelators    and    sequestrants    are    organic molecules,    they    are    subject    to    attack    by    high levels   of   oxidizers   and   "wear   off'   over   time.   This is   the   reason   that   most   product   labels   state   that continued   additions   may   be   necessary   to   control metals.    With    this    in    mind,    it    is    obvious    that shock     treatments     should     not     be     performed directly    after    chelators    or    sequestrants    have been added. TEMPERATURE    and    TDS    (Total    Dissolved    Solids) have    slight    effects    on    chelation.    According    to manufacturer    studies,    high    temperature    and high    TDS    increase    the    amount    of    chelator    or sequestrant needed. METAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES Soluble   metal   ions   such   as   copper   or   iron   can exist in water in three different forms. They are: 1)   Unreacted   ions.   Colorless   but   ready   to   react   in some manner such as oxidation. 2)   Ions   already   reacted   but   not   yet   precipitated. Colored water but not staining. 3)   Ions   already   reacted   and   precipitated.   Clear water but stained surfaces. There   are   four   different   techniques   used   to control     metals     depending     on     their     state     as shown above. The control techniques are: Chemical         chelators   or   sequestrants   pH   control. The use of acids or alkalis Chemical    reduction.    The    use    of    strong    anti- oxidizers   Chlorination   or   oxidationChelators   and sequestrants   chemically   coat   ions   in   any   of   the three   states.   Effectiveness   varies   based   on   pH, sanitizer   level,   calcium   level,   depth   of   stain   and amount of stain. An   acid   wash   is   an   extreme   example   of   pH control.   Strong   acid   breaks   the   bonds   of   reacted ions    and    releases    the    ions    to    the    unreacted state.    Strong    alkali    such    as    sodium    carbonate can    bond    with    unreacted    ions    to    form    cloudy precipitates     which     can     be     easily     filtered     or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Chemical      reduction      is      the      opposite      of oxidation.   It   can   be   used   effectively   to   reverse reacted   iron   either   in   the   colored   or   precipitated states.    Reduction    brings    the    iron    back    to    the unreacted state. Under     certain     conditions     chlorination     or other     forms     of     oxidation     such     as     granular oxygen    compounds    or    ozonation,    are    used    to produce     a     cloudy     precipitate     that     is     easily filtered or flocked and vacuumed to waste. Metal Control Products Product Type: Chelator  Sequestrant  Reduction  Oxidation  Chlorination  Trade Name Example Chonchelate, Metal Out  Sequest, Stain Off, Spa Demineralizer  Conquest  Demineralizer  Shock II, Sho2X  Hit Hard, More Chlor CYANURIC ACID TESTING The   Cyanuric   Acid   (Stabilizer)   test   is   perhaps the    most    inconsistent    water    test    performed. Some      of      the      problems      of      reporting      and reproducing     accurate     Cyanuric     Acid     readings are: 1)   Temperature   of   the   sample.   Try   to   keep   and test   the   water   sample   at   room         temperature. The colder the water, the lower the test resuIt. 2)   Waiting   time   before   reading.   Be   consistent   at the   recommended   30   seconds   before   …. reading. The   shorter   the   time   interval,   the   lower   the   test result. 3)    Viewing    tube    cloudiness.    Due    to    a    reaction with     the     Cyanuric     reagent,     Viewing     ,,,, Tubes become   cloudy   over   a   period   of   a   few   months. Be   sure   to   rinse   the   Viewing   Tube   carefully   after each use. Cloudy tubes are hard to read. 4)    Reading    higher    levels    of    Cyanuric    Acid.    The markings   of   60,   80,   and   100   ppm   level   …. on   …. the Viewing    Tube    are    increasingly    close    together. Only   a   fraction   of   an   inch   …. separates   …. the   60 ppm   mark   from   the   100   ppm   mark.   Rather   than guess in this …. higher    range,    redo    the    test    by    diluting    the water    sample    in    half    with    tap    water    to    …. put …. the   test   result   in   a   more   readable   range.   Then double   your   reading   to   more   …. accurately   report the   Cyanuric   Acid   level.   Always   dilute   the   water sample and redo …. the test when over 100 ppm. An     interesting     problem     with     Cyanuric     Acid results    is    that    high    levels    of    Cyanuric    Acid notably        affects        Total        Alkalinity.        When measuring Total Alkalinity follow this formula: Total   Alkalinity   -   (Cyanuric   Acid   level   x   .30)   =   True Total Alkalinity THE FUNGUS (Dark Stains On Liners) During    the    past    four    years    a    small,    but growing   number   of   above   ground   and   in   ground vinyl    liner    pools    have    developed    dark    colored stains   that   do   not   respond   to   normal   chemical treatments      such      as      shock      treatments      or algaecides.   Nor   can   these   stains   be   brushed   off or    scraped    off.    They    appear    to    be    caused    by unusual    fungus    attacks.    In    many    cases    these stains   can   be   bleached   out   for   a   time   ranging from   one   week   up   to   two   years   (depending   on the    severity    of    the    stain)    using    the    following procedure: 1) Adjust the pH, if necessary, to 7.2-7.8 2)   Adjust   the   Total   Alkalinity,   if   necessary   to 100-150 ppm 3)   Turn   off   the   filtration   system   and   allow   the water to sit. 4)   Prior   to   this   step   it   is   very   important   to               note that   Trichloro   Granules   should   not   contact   the vinyl   liner   for   more   than   fifteen   (15)   minutes   in order      to      prevent      the      …. vinyl      liner      from bleaching!    Pour    2    lbs.    of    Nuclo    QUICK    KILL    or Ortex     TRICHLORO     GRANULAR     or     equivalent directly on the affected areas. 5)    Spread    the    granules    evenly    over    the    stains and allow direct contact for 7-10 minutes.                                          Then   push   the   granular   pile   to   the   next   affected area   with   a   wide   pool   brush.   For   stains   in   sloped areas,   pour   granules   into   a   deep-pocket   leaf   net and   …. allow   the   net   to   lie   on   the   affected   area for   7-10   minutes.   If   granules   fail   through   …. the mesh   of   the   leaf   net,   an   alternative   approach   is to   pour   about   1/2   lb.   of   …. granules   into   the   toe of    nylon    panty    hose.    Nylon    hose    has    a    much finer    mesh    …. construction.    In    any    event,    the granules    must    not    contact    the    vinyl    liner    for more    …. than    fifteen    (15)    minutes    in    order    to prevent    the    vinyl    liner    from    bleaching.    Please test   this   procedure   on   a   small   area   to   determine your    vinyl    liner's    reactivity.    When    the    stain removal procedure     is     complete,     start     the     filtration system   and   vacuum   the   remaining   granules   in the filter. NITRIFICATION & CHLORINE DEMAND How   green   is   a   green   pool?   When   is   a   normal shock   treatment   the   correct   dose   compared   to   a treatment 3x normal? Or 5x? These    questions    test    the    imagination    of anyone   who   is   asked   to   describe   a   "green   pool." Maybe   one   should   be   asked,   "Can   you   see   the shallow    end    bottom,    the    hopper,    or    even    the deep end bottom?" WHAT IS NITRIFICATION? If   green   is   really   green,   it's   a   good   bet   that nitrification    has    taken    place.    Nitrification    is    a micro     biological     process     in     which     ammonia (NH3)is   converted   by   oxidation   into   nitrite   (N02) and   nitrate   (N03).   This   process   is   carried   out   by two   bacteria   known   as   Nitrosomonas   .   But   first, ammonia     must     be     formed.     The     sources     of ammonia        are        quite        plentiful:        inorganic fertilizers,   plant   protein   decay   (leaves   etc.)   and animal     protein     decay     (bugs     etc.)     Specialized bacteria   decompose   the   proteins   into   ammonia in   part   of   an   ongoing   cycle   called   the   NITROGEN CYCLE.          (see          Nitrogen          Cycle          Chart). Nitrosomonas,     in     turn,     get     their     energy     or "food"    from    the    newly    created    ammonia    and carbon   dioxide,   both   present   in   the   water.   Once nitrification      begins,      an      accelerating      cycle develops.   The   nitrates,   once   formed,   are   great algae    nutrients!    And    as    nitrates    accumulate, algae   bloom   and   the   water   turns   greener   and greener.   As   the   Nitrogen   Cycle   progresses,   more and     more     plant     life     becomes     available     for further   bacterial   decomposition   into   more   and more ammonia. WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS? Nitrification   leads   to   water   conditions   that range    from    slight    odor    to    major    algae    bloom. These    conditions    have    been    observed    in    both swimming   pools   and   in   municipal   waste   water treatment   systems.   The   color   can   range   from   a light   green   tint   to   an   emerald   or   dark   green,   or even    a    black.    Water    clarity    can    range    from    a hazy   deep   end   to   almost   solid   color   at   a   depth   of a few inches. WHAT CONDITIONS FAVOR NITRIFICATION? The     primary     influence     is     the     level     of ammonia     present.     And     this     level,     in     turn, depends   on   the   level   of   decomposing   plant   and animal    life,    and    certain    fertilizers.    A    second factor   is   pH,   especially   in   the   range   of   pH=   7.5- 8.5.   A   third   factor   is   water   temperature   in   the range    of70-85F.    A    fourth    factor    is    periods    of extended   darkness   (covered   pools)   followed   by exposure   to   sunlight   (promotes   algae   growth). Clearly   the   "worst   case   scenario"   is   a   pool   that is      carelessly      winterized      (not      cleaned      or vacuumed,    little    or    no    sanitizer    added),poorly covered   (rips,   pin   holes,   too   small   etc.),   and   left covered   late   into   the   spring   (long   incubation   and warming water). WHAT CAN BE DONE? Testing   for   Nitrification   is   too   complicated for    a    single    test    such    as    a    nitrate    test    (being used     by     some     pool     dealers     to     identify     the problem).   A   nitrate   test   will   only   test   one   part   of the    cycle.    Research    *    indicates,    for    example, that     Nitrosomonas     bacteria     secrete     organic compounds   that   actually   stimulate   the   growth of    other    types    of    bacteria.    A    test    for    these bacteria    would    be    needed    too.    Data    from    the Metropolitan   Water   District   of   So.   Cal.   shows   5- 10   ppm   of   chlorine   effective   in   controlling   mild nitrification.   Severe   cases   can   require   25-50   ppm of   chlorine   (5x   shock   treatment)   and   repeated treatments in some cases.
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